THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
I. RESULTS OF THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR
A. DURING THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR, AMERICANS BECAME INCREASINGLY AWARE
OF HOW DIFFERENT THEY WERE FROM THE BRITISH
B.AMERICANS BECAME INSULTED BY THE WAY THEY WERE TREATED BY BRITISH
c. THEY WERE TREATED
AS IF THEY WERE NOT CITIZENS OF ENGLAND
II. ISSUES THAT LED TO THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE
A. IN PROTECTING AMERICANS WITH TROOPS AND SHIPS DURING
THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR, ENGLAND HAD ACCURED A HUGE DEBT
B. ENGLAND THOUGHT IT ONLY FAIR THE AMERICANS PAY THEIR FAIR SHARE
C. TO TOP IT OFF
BRITIAN WAS IN THE MIDST OF A SERIOUS DEPRESSION
1. THE SUGAR ACT (MOLASSES ACT) WAS INTENDED TO RAISE MONEY FROM THE COLONIES
BY TAXING MOLASSES
2. THE PROCLAMATION OF 1763- PROHIBITED THE SELLING OF LANDS BEYOND THE LINE OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER
3. THE STAMP ACT
1765 WAS DESINGED TO RAISE MONEY FOR THE DEFENSE AND SUPPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIES
REQUIRED ALL LEGAL DOCUMENTS AND PRINTED MATERIALS i.e. NEWSPAPERS TO HAVE AN ATTACHED PAPER STAMP, SIMPLY TO SHOW THAT A
REQUIRED FEE HAD BEEN PAID.
3. BROUGHT OUTRAGE FROM COLONIST, THEY BEGAN TO BOYCOTT THE STAMPS
4. CLAIMED THAT THEY WERE FREE
BORN ENGLISHMEN AND COULD NOT BE TAXED WITHOUT THEIR CONSENT –ENGLAND DIDN’T SEE IT THAT WAY
5. THE STAMP ACT WAS REPEALED IN 1766
A. THE TOWNSHEND ACTS (REVENUE
ACT)- LEVIED TAXES ON GLASS, LEAD, PAINT, PAPER AND TEA. THESE ACTS INCREASED REVENUES BUT THE COST WERE GREAT
1. REQUIRED COLONISTS HOUSE TROOPS IN BARRACKS AND TAVERS –NOT HOMES
2. ALSO REQUIRED TO PROVIDE FOOD, WOOD, ETC…
THE BOSTON MASSACRE
1. UNEMPLOYMENT IN BOSTON WAS HIGH, ENGLISH SOLIDERS TRIED TO GAIN EXTRA WORK WHILE OFF DUTY WORKING AS SECURITY
2. TENSION BEGAN WHEN A BARBERS APPRENTICE SHOUTED AN INSULT AT A BRITISH SOLIDER
3. THE SOLIDER RETALIATED BY HITTING THE MAN WITH THE BUTT OF HIS GUN
4. A CROWD OF MORE THAN 400 SOON GATHERED AFTER SOMEONE RANG THE FIRE BELL
5. THE SENTRY OF SOLIDERS THEN CALLED FOR THE SUPPORT OF THE REST OF THEIR SQUADRON
6. THE CROWD THEN BEGAN TO THROW SNOWBALLS AND ICE CHUNKS
7. FINALLY ONE SOLIDER WAS KNOCKED DOWN, WHEN HE STOOD UP HE FIRED INTO THE CROWD, THE REST OF THE SQUADRON
DID THE SAME
8. WHEN THE SMOKE HAD CLEARED FIVE PEOPLE LAY DEAD AND EIGHT OTHERS WERE WOUNDED, THE FIRST TO DIE WAS CRISPUS
ATTUCKS, A RUNAWAY MULATTO SLAVE.
RESULTS OF THE MASSACRE
1. THE SOLIDERS INVOLVED IN THE SHOOTING WERE IMMEDIATLEY ARRESTED AND CHARGED WITH MURDER
2. THEY WERE DEFENDED AT TRIAL BY JOHN ADAMS, WHO BELIEVED THEY WERE VICTIMS OF CIRCUMSTANCE
3. ALL SOLIDERS WERE ACQUITTED EXCEPT TWO, WHO WERE CONVICTED OF MANSLAUGHTER, AND BRANDED ON THEIR THUMBS
4. AS A RESULT ALL OF THE TOWNSHEND ACTS WERE LIFTED WITH THE EXCEPTION OF THE TAX ON TEA
5. ALL BRITISH SOLIDERS WERE REMOVED FROM BOSTON, YET THEY REMAINED NEARBY
a. British gov't granted British East India Company a monopoly of
the American tea trade.
i. BEIC on the verge of
bankruptcy which would have cost the
government huge revenues.
Price of tea would
be even lower than existing prices, even with the tax.
b. Americans reacted angrily:
saw Tea Act as an attempt to trick colonies
into accepting the tax through
• The Boston Tea Party
Act (1773)-charged a tax on all tea coming into colonies
water had poor taste-boiled with tea leafs to make drinkable
to the act became widespread
Delaware Committee for
Tarring and Feathering took care of the tea shippers
Those who bought tea were marked as traitors
• Dartmouth- arrived in Nov. 1773
• Sam Adams and Sons of liberty called for the ships
return to England
• Gov. Thomas Hutchinson ordered Boston Harbor to be
• Dec. 17, 1773-Sons of Liberty, dressed as Indians, boarded the Dartmouth
brewed Boston Harbor with
90,000 lbs. Of tea
• tea washed up 200 miles down the shores
Results of the Boston Tea Party
George forced the 5 Intolerable
Acts (coercive acts)
• Boston Port Act-Closed port
Gov’t Act-turned over the gov’t to the royal officials
Administration of Justice Act-royal officials accused of crimes were tried in Britain
Act-revised 1765 act to where soldiers could be placed in private homes
1. Lexington and Concord (April
A. British had plans of cracking down on the growth
of the rebellion
1. Were seeking Sam Adams and John Hancock.
Also sought American munitions stockade in Concord
B. British troops under command of Gen. Thomas Gage
were to move out by boat at night
Spies such as Paul Revere were on the lookout.
2. Revere rode warning all to flee
3. April 18 Revere is captured by British troops.
4. Ride is continued by William Dawes and Dr. Joesph
April 19 British Troops appear on the green on Lexington to confiscate munitions
1. American Rebels are waiting with guns
2. Ordered to disband-began to do so under fear
3.Shot rang out-both sides started firing
8 Americans killed-10 injured
b. 1 British soldier slightly injured
D. American stockade of 500 pounds of lead is captured-no gun powder is found
E. British leave Lexington for
1. News has spread about the conflict
2. Small units of rebels are waiting along the roadside.
3. From behind walls and trees
they shoot (guerilla warfare/hit and run)
4. Casualties: British over 250 killed/ Americans 93
5. Battle was great moral and political victory for the Americans.
1. Bunker Hill-June 17, 1775
A. First major battle of the War
1. Both American and British forces had gathered around Boston
2. The Americans occupied Breeds
Hill to spite the British
B. June 16 Americans began digging several trenches
C. British fired from ships before landing
D. June 17-British made two charges
1. American Gen. Israel Putman ordered not to fire unti they could see the whites of thier eyes
Both charges are rebuffed
3. Third wave Americans fought with no bullets, used broken pieces of glass
and rocks to shoot-fought hand to hand using clubs and rifle butts
4. 145 Americans killed in this
wave-most recieved the bayonet
5. 226 British killed -826 wounded
150 Americans killed 304 wounded
7. Nathanel Greene said "I wish we could sell them another hill at
the same price"
8. Americans Began to believe that they could win the war.
A. Following two years of fighting the American Forces Had yet to win a battle
in the fight for independence.
of the troops were low and desertion rates were high.
C. Hessian troops were German mercinaries hired by the British.
troops occupied the front lines of the British Army.
1. 2400 American Forces under command
of Gen. G. Washington ferried across the icy Delaware River under cover of darkness.
2. Surrounded 1200 Hessians
Soldiers that had been up late celebrating Christmas the night before.
3. Achieved Total surprise, all Hessians
were captured including supplies, thier leader Johann Rall is killed, only four Americans were wounded.
American victory was the first of the war, and helped to restore American morale.
We are taught that the winter at Valley Forge was the worst, one in four men would die. Men were walking through the snow
barefoot, many men died of starvation of disease.
2. These claims are simply not true, conditions
at Valley Forge that winter were poor yet not nearly as poor as portrayed.
3. George Washington was a master
of propoganda, he sent letters the entire winter to Colonial Governors and the Continental Congress, explaining the terrible
conditions at Valley Forge.
4. He did this in order to build supplies for the following years campaign.
5. And we all know that George Washington would not tell a lie...just stretch the truth a bit.
What should be remembered about Valley Forge is the work of Baron Von Stueben, a Prussian Captain that offered his services
to the American Army.
7. He spent his time drilling and working with the American soliders in order
to make them a more formidable fighting force the next year thanks to Washingtons procurement of supplies and Von Stuebens
training of the troops.
Financing the Revolution
- Continental Congress had very limited powers
a. Could not levy taxes
b. Had to count on the good
will of the states to help with costs
c. Individual states had the power to make deals with forgeign nations
if they so desired
d. The individual state became responsible for the well being of the soliders that
they had sent to help the cause.
2. In response to this Conrgress began to issue paper
a. They were promisary notes to be paid in the future, when (if) the Americans won the war.
Through exchange they began to lose thier value.
c. Soon they became worthless-"not worth a continental"
d. People began to demand hard money or other resources for goods and services
e. Made commerce amongst the
states difficult because no one wanted to provide services without guarentee of payment.
The turning point of the War!
The Battle of Saratoga was theturning point in the Americans' War of Independence.
B. there were two battles at Saratoga, New York. The first began with Gen. John
Burgoyne's offensive on September 19, the second with the climactic phase of the fighting during the Battle of Bemis Heights
on October 7.
C. In the first
Battle, the British lost two men for every one American casualty. In terms of ground gained, however, both sides fought to
D. The second Battle,
the Americans victory was overwhelming.
E. Burgoyne officially surrendered on October 17. He returned to England in disgrace, and was never given another command.
F. When news of the American victory reached
Europe, France entered the war on the side
of the patriots. Money and supplies
flowed to the American cause, providing Washington's Continental Army with the support necessary to continue its fight against
loss at Saratoga proved disastrous, in that it signaled to the European powers that the rebels were capable of defeating the
English on their own.
War in the south
A. After loss at Saratoga British sought to crush the rebellion in the South-believed North would fall.
1. British were able to move soliders faster by ship.
2. Believed many more of the peope in the South were
still loyal to Britian.
3. British needed their support for successful campaign.
B. Loyalist failed
to come through
1. South seemed to have more patriots
2. Gave guns and
food to the Americans.
3. Gave a distinct advantage to the American Cause.
1. British General Lord Corwallis
and former U.S. General Benidict Arnold had a combined 7200 forces. Both believed Yorktown to be a very defensible site.
2. French navy played a large part by preventing
Cornwallis from recieving supplies and reinforcments.
3. France was able to send reinforcments and supplies through, and brought the size of the American
forces to more than 16,000 which was double the size of the British.
4. Began a siege of Yorktown on September 28
5. British counterattacked on Oct 16, plan failes
6. War ended Oct 17, 1781 Cornwallis claimed
to be to ill to appear and surrender his sword.
The Peace Treaty
A. British recongnized the independence of the
B. Acquisition of all land from
Atlantic coast to Mississippi River
would be allowed to leave several posts
Americans gained fishing rights near New Foundland area.
E. Brisith sought property damages for the Loyalist-Never got it.
F. Treaty ratified on April 19, 1783 8 years to the day of Lexington and Concord.