“The war that raged in North America through the late 1750’s and early 1760’s was but one
the larger struggle between England and France for dominance in world trade and naval power. The British
victory in that struggle, known in Europe as the Seven
Years War, ended the long struggle among those two
principal powers in northeastern North America, and
it confirmed England’s commercial supremacy and
cemented its control of the settled regions of North
The French and the English had coexisted
relatively peacefully in North America for nearly
a century. But by the 1 750’s, as both English
and French settlements expanded, religious and
commercial tensions began to produce new frictions
and new conflicts. The French had explored and
claimed a vast region of the continental interior, ranging from Louisiana in the South to the Great Lakes
in the North. To secure their hold on these enormous claims, they founded a whole string of communities,
missions, trading posts, and fortresses. The region was enclosed by the four major cities: Montreal, Detroit,
New Orleans, and Quebec, the center of the French empire in North America.
The English, meanwhile, were preparing for the great population leap across the Appalachians
into Ohio and beyond. In 1749, a group of Virginian businessmen secured a grant of 500,000 acres of
Ohio valley land for settlement purposes. They were not impressed by Joseph Celeron, who in the same
year had claimed that region for France. This prompted the French, in an effort to keep the English from
expansion into French lands, to construct new fortresses in the Ohio Valley. This, in turn, caused the
English, interpreting the French activity as a threat to their western settlements, to begin making military
preparations and building fortresses of their own.
For the next five years, tensions between the English and the French increased, until in the summer
of 1754, the governor of Virginia sent a militia force (under command of an inexperienced George
Washington) into the Ohio Valley to challenge French expansion. Washington built a crude stockade (Fort
Necessity) and staged an unsuccessful attack on a French detachment. The French countered with an assault
on Fort Necessity, trapping Washington and his
soldiers inside. After a third of them died in the
fighting, Washington surrendered. This clash
marked the beginning of the French and Indian
General Braddockʼs Defeat
“In 1755, Great Britain sent an army of 80 soldiers to Virginia. They
were led by General Edward Braddock. That spring the British troops
and about 600 colonists moved slowly toward Fort Duquesne. George
Washington went along as the general’s
As part of their uniforms, the British
soldiers wore bright red coats. Washington
tried to warn General Braddock that Indians
would find it easy to pick off such colorful
targets. But the general would not listen.
Indians might be a problem for ‘your raw
American militia,’ said Braddock. ‘But
upon the King’s regular and disciplined
troops, Sir, it is impossible they should
make any impression.’
Braddock could not have been more wrong. On July 9, the main part of
his army came within 1 0 miles of Fort Duquesne. The British could almost
smell victory. Then a thick hail of bullets rained down from nowhere. French
and Indian fighters hidden behind the trees had found their bright red targets.
Washington late wrote that the British had panicked. With men dying
all around them, they ran away ‘as sheep pursued
by dogs.’ Washington himself had ‘four bullets
through my coat and two horses shot under me.’
Yet he escaped unhurt. Braddock was not as lucky.
He was wounded, and four days later he died. His
last words were said to be ‘We shall know better
how to do it next time.’ ”
Write the questions and answer with complete sentences. You may use the internet to search for images of British
Redcoat uniforms to help you to better understand the concepts.
1. What do you notice about the British
uniforms that Washington was alluding to?
2. Do you agree with his assessment?
3. What did General Braddock mean when
he said “We shall know better how to do it
4. Did the English learn anything from this
battle? Did they “do it” better next time?
Research the “Indian Warfare” strategies used by the Native Americans and the French. Write a short
report detailing the methods used and why they proved to be so successful.
Your Task: We talked about some of the problems
with the Colony of Roanoke. based on what you learned in your notes, along with resources from the internet, to come up with
at least 4 theories based on evidence about what could have happened to the colonist of Roanoke, this is a 20
point assingnments, each theory is worth 5 pts, I will accept one additional theory for extra credit.
In groups of no more than three you will do the following assingnment...You will be presenting this to the class so don't
embarrass yourself and be ill prepared!
CLICK HERE TO GET YOUR NEXT ASSINGMENT!! IT WILL BE FUN I PROMISE!
In groups of three or less. Discuss the following and design a government or comact
that all members of the group MUST AGREE UPON, if all members do not agree you must debate until an agreement
is reached. Write a paper describing your government making sure to answers all of the following questions, remember that
you will be questioned about the creation process that you went about to arive at your agreement. These are not the only questions
you must answer these are a minimum, feel free to add anything else you would like to include about your agreement.
-Should there be a single leader or a group of leaders?
-How should the leader or leaders be selected?
-Who should make the laws?
-How should the lawmaker or lawmakers be selected?
-Should a police force be established to enforce the laws? If so, how should the police force
-Should a judge or judges be selected to preside over trials? If so, how should the judge
or judges be selected?
-What general rule should determine how work is to be accomplished?
-What rights should everyone have?
The Mayflower CompactIf
they looked behind them, there was the mighty ocean which they had passed…to separate them from all the civil parts
of the world.
-- William Bradford
The 102 passengers on the Mayflower were divided into
two groups. Only 41 of them were Pilgrims--religious dissenters called Separatists, who had fled England for Holland. Now
they sought a new life in America where they could practice their religion in the manner they chose. The rest of the passengers,
called "strangers" by the Pilgrims, included merchants, craftsmen, skilled workers and indentured servants, and several young
orphans. All were common people. About one-third of them were children.
The Pilgrims had organized the voyage. William
Brewster and the other Pilgrim leaders had secured the right to settle on land claimed by the Virginia Company near the mouth
of the Hudson River. To raise money for the voyage the Pilgrims signed a contract with a group of London stockholders. In
return the stockholders would share in the profits of the planned colony. The Pilgrims had rounded up the "strangers" to increase
the chances of success for their enterprise.
The 3,000-mile voyage across the Atlantic lasted more than two months.
When they finally sighted land on November 9, 1620, the captain of the Mayflower knew right away that they were at Cape Cod,
far north of their destination. The captain headed the Mayflower southward, but dangerous sand bars and heavy seas forced
them to turn back. The Mayflower finally dropped anchor in a harbor at the tip of Cape Cod. Rather than chancing more days
at sea, the Pilgrims decided to land.
Almost immediately, an argument broke out. According to William Bradford (who
later wrote an account of the Pilgrims' experiences) several "strangers" made "discontented and mutinous speeches." They apparently
argued that, since the Cape Cod area was outside the jurisdiction of the Virginia Company, its rules and regulations no longer
applied. The troublemakers threatened to do as they pleased "for none had power to command them," wrote William Bradford.
Three thousand miles from home, a real crisis faced the colonists even before they stepped ashore.The Mayflower Compact
Imagine the situation: over 100
people, cut off from any government, with a rebellion brewing. Only staunch determination would help the Pilgrims land and
establish their colony. If they didn't work as a group, they could all die in the wilderness.
The Pilgrim leaders realized
that they needed a temporary government authority. Back home, such authority came from the king. Isolated as they were in
America, it could only come from the people themselves. Aboard the Mayflower, by necessity, the Pilgrims and "Strangers" made
a written agreement or compact among themselves.
The Mayflower Compact
was probably composed by William Brewster, who had a university education, and was signed by nearly all the adult male colonists,
including two of the indentured servants. The format of the Mayflower Compact is very similar to the written agreements used
by the Pilgrims to establish their Separatist churches in England and Holland. Under these agreements the male adult members
of each church decided how to worship God. They also elected their own ministers and other church officers. This pattern of
church self-government served as a model for political self-government in the Mayflower Compact.
The colonists had
no intention of declaring their independence from England when they signed the Mayflower Compact. In the opening line of the
Compact, both Pilgrims and "Strangers" refer to themselves as "loyal subjects" of King James. The rest of the Mayflower Compact
is very short. It simply bound the signers into a "Civil Body Politic" for the purpose of passing "just and equal Laws . .
. for the general good of the Colony." But those few words expressed the idea of self-government for the first time in the
New World.Self-Government Takes Root
agreeing to the Mayflower Compact, the signers elected John Carver (one of the Pilgrim leaders) as governor of their colony.
They called it Plymouth Plantation. When Governor Carver died in less than a year, William Bradford, age 31, replaced him.
Each year thereafter the "Civil Body Politic," consisting of all adult males except indentured servants, assembled to elect
the governor and a small number of assistants. Bradford was re-elected 30 times between 1621 and 1656.
In the early
years Governor Bradford pretty much decided how the colony should be run. Few objected to his one-man rule. As the colony's
population grew due to immigration, several new towns came into existence. The roving and increasingly scattered population
found it difficult to attend the General Court, as the governing meetings at Plymouth came to be called. By 1639, deputies
were sent to represent each town at the other General Court sessions. Not only self-rule, but representative government had
taken root on American soil.
The English Magna Carta, written more than 400 years before the Mayflower Compact, established
the principle of the rule of law. In England this still mostly meant the king's law. The Mayflower Compact continued the idea
of law made by the people. This idea lies at the heart of democracy.
From its crude beginning in Plymouth, self-government
evolved into the town meetings of New England and larger local governments in colonial America. By the time of the Constitutional
Convention, the Mayflower Compact had been nearly forgotten, but the powerful idea of self-government had not. Born out of
necessity on the Mayflower, the Compact made a significant contribution to the creation of a new democratic nation.
On your own Write and Answer the following Questions in Complete
Sentences, ...Give me good answers not garbage.
For Discussion and Writing
1. What two groups
comprised the passengers on the Mayflower? How were they different from each other? How similar?
2. What events forced
the passengers on the Mayflower to write and sign the Mayflower Compact?
3. What facts in the article support the argument
that the Pilgrims were democratic? What facts support the view that they were not democratic?
4. What is the most important
idea contained in the Mayflower Compact? What are some other ideas it contains?
Nathaniel Bacon on the internet...use any resource that you can to write a biography of his life, this biography should include
information about his birth, and major events in his life, also include information about the rebellions, this assignment
should be about one page in length.
Camp Verde High School