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Friars U.S. History

Early America Unit I

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The End....aren't you glad!?

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UNIT ONE: THE FOUNDING OF AMERICA

I. WHO WERE THE FIRST AMERICANS?

    1. ACCORDING TO ARCHEOLOGISTS THE FIRST PEOPLES ARRIVED IN THE HEMISPHERE BETWEEN 12,000 TO 20,000 YEARS AGO, PROBALLY DURING THE ICE AGE.
    2. THESE PEOPLE ARRIVED FROM EUROPE AND ASIA ACROSS A LAND BRIDGE: THE BERING STRAIT
    3. FOLLOWING THE END OF THE ICE AGE THIS BRIDGE BECAME COVERED WITH WATER.
    4. THESE PROPLE BEGAN TO MIGRATE TOWARDS THE SOUTH AMERICA

II. CULTURES OF THE FIRST AMERICANS

  1. ESKIMOS
  1. LIVES REVOLVED AROUND HUNTING AND FISHING
  2. ANIMALS SUCH AS SEALS, WALRUS, WHALES, AND CARIBOU WERE A SOURCE NOT ONLY OF FOOD, BUT ALSO OF CLOTHING, TOOLS, WEAPONS, BOATS, HOUSHOLD IMPLEMENTS, AND OTHER NECESSITIES.
  1. PACIFIC NORTHWEST
  1. THESE PEOPLE HAD PLENTIFUL FOOD SUPPLIES AND A VERY MILD CLIMATE
  2. THESE FAVORABLE CONDITIONS LEFT THE PEOPLE OF THE NORTHWEST WITH MORE FREE TIME FOR DIVERSIFIED ACTIVITIES
  3. THESE PEOPLE WERE ABLE TO DEVELOP A COMPLEX SOCIETY BASED ON WEALTH.
  1. THE DESERT TRIBES
  1. ANASAZI- THESE PEOPLE TURNED THE DESERT INTO A PRODUCTIVE FARMING LANDS WITH AN ADVANCED SYSTEM OF DAMS AND IRRIGATION CANALS.
  2. THEY BUILT CLIFF DWELINGS SIMILAR TO MODERN HIGH RISE APARTMENTS.
  3. OTHER TRIBES IN THIS AREA INCLUDE THE PUEBLO, AND NAVAJO
  1. THE GREAT PLAINS
  1. IN THE PLAINS TRIBES WOMEN WERE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE FARMING, THE PRINCIPAL CROPS WERE CORN, SQAUSH, BEANS, AND SUNFLOWERS.
  2. DURING THE SUMMER MONTHS THE MEN WOULD LEAVE FOR WEEKS AT A TIME TO HUNT BUFFALO.
  3. PLAINS TRIBES GENERALLY HAD PERMANENT COMMUNITIES
  1. THE EASTERN WOODLANDS
  1. THE LARGEST GROUP OF NATIVES IN THIS AREA WERE CALLED THE IROQUOIS.
  2. THE IROQUOIS WERE MADE UP OF THE MOHAWK, ONEIDA, ONODAGA, CAYUGA, AND SENECA, THEY WERE LATER KNOW AS THE FIVE NATIONS
  3. THEIR LEAGUE WAS REPRESENATIVE OF A CONFEDERATION, OR A GOVERNMENT MADE UP OF INDEPENDENT UNITS.
  4. THE IROQUOIS MEN WERE HUNTERS AND THE WOMEN WERE THE FARMERS. THE WOMEN WERE ALLOWED TO PARTICIPATE IN TRIBAL DECISION MAKING
  5. FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS THESE TRIBAL SOCIETIES KNEW NOTHING OF THE REST OF THE WORLD. THEY WERE AS ISOLATED FROM THEIR ORIGINAL HOMELANDS IN ASIA, EUROPE AND AFRICA AS IF THEY WERE ON THE MOON.

II. EXPLORERS FROM EUROPE

    1. IN 1492 AN EXPEDITION LED BY CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS VERIFIED WHAT FISHING CREWS HAD BEEN SAYING FOR DECADES: LAND LAY ACROSS THE ATLANTIC OCEAN
    2. COLUMBUS SAILED THREE SHIPS INTO THE AREA KNOWN TODAY AS THE BAHAMAS
    3. COLUMBUS FOUND THAT THE INHABITAINS OF THE ISLAND HAD SUBSTANTIAL AMOUNTS OF GOLD.
  1. A NEW WORLD
  1. NEWS OF COLUMBUS’S VOYAGE AND FINDINGS SPREAD QUICKLY THROUGH EUROPE
  2. EVENTUALLY MORE NEW LANDS WERE DISCOVERED AS EXPLORERS VENTURED ACROSS THE ATLANTIC.
  3. IN 1499 ITALIAN "SIGHTSEER" AMERIGO VESPUSCCI VISITED THE COAST OF BRAZIL AND WROTE A DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF HIS ADVENTURES THAT ATTRACTED MUCH ATTENTION.
  4. FROM THEN ON THE "NEW WORLD" WAS CALLED AMERICA IN HIS HONOR AND THE NAME STUCK.
  1. ENGLISH COLONIES IN AMERICA
  1. ENGLAND BEGAN TO BECAME JEALOUS OF SPAINS NEW FOUND WEALTH AND SUCCESS IN THE NEW WORLD. YET THEY DID NOT WANT AN ALL OUT WAR WITH SPAIN.
  2. THE ENGLISH BEGAN TO ATTACK SPANISH MERCHANT SHIPS RETURNING FROM AMERICA
  3. THE MOST WELL KNOW "PIRATE" WAS FRANCIS DRAKE, HE TERORIZED SPANISH TOWNS IN THE CARIBBEAN ISLANDS
  4. THE KING OF SPAIN WAS FURIOUS, SO HE GATHERED 130 SHIPS CARRYING 30,000 MEN ARMED WITH 2,400 CANNONS AND SET OUT TO ATTACK ENGLAND
  5. NOT ONE SPANISH SOLIDER OR SAILOR SET FOOT ON ENGLISH SOIL, EXCEPT AS A CAPTIVE. ENGLAND HAD FEWER SHIPS BUT THEY WERE EASIER TO MANEUVER AND MORE POWERFUL
  6. THEY SANK MANY OF THE ATTACKERS, AND STORMS FINISHED OFF STILL MORE.
  7. ONLY ABOUT HALF THE FLEET RETURNED TO SPAIN
  8. THUS THE STAGE WAS SET FOR ENGLAND TO CARVE A PLACE FOR ITSELF IN AMERICA.

III.EARLY AMERICA

    1. THE LOST COLONY OF ROANOKE (1584-1590)
    1. LED AND DISCOVERED BY WALTER RALEIGH
    2. FIRST EXPLORED THE AREA IN 1584-NATIVES WERE SAID TO BE "A LOVING PEOPLES-BUT THEY LACKED A WORLDLY RELIGION"
    3. RALEIGH WAS SENT TO ESTABLISH A COLONY AND LOOK FOR GOLD
    4. MAJOR PROBLEM-NO ONE WAS WILLING TO VOLUNTEER FOR ROANOKE-SO DRUNKS WERE SNATCHED FROM TAVERNS & CRIMINALS WERE GIVEN THE OPTION OF DEATH OR FREEDOM IN ROANOKE.
    1. PROBLEMS WITH ROANOKE
    1. ENGLISH TOOK ADVANTAGE OF THE INDIANS & THEIR GOOD HOSPITALITY
    2. ENGLISH RAN OUT OF FOOD AND SUPPLIES
    3. ENGLISH CAUGHT SCURVY AND OTHER DISEASES
    1. RALEIGH RETURNED A YEAR LATER WITH 400 NEW COLONISTS- ALL OF THE ENGLISH HAD VANISHED.
    1. ROANOKE WAS DESERTED
    2. RALEIGH LEFT 18 SOLIDERS TO HOLD THE FORT
    3. RALEIGH RETURNED THE YEAR LATER- ALL HAD VANISHED AGAIN
    4. EVIDENCE SHOWS THAT COLONISTS CAME INTO CONTACT WITH CANNIBAL NATIVES
    5. YET IT REALLY REMAINS UNKNOWN WHAT THEIR FATE WAS.

IV. JAMESTOWN-1607

    1. IN 1606 THE LONDON COMPANY RECRUTED 104 SETTLERS, THEIR DESTINATION WAS VIRGINA, THEIR PURPOSE TO BUILD A TOWN AND SEARCH FOR GOLD, SILVER, AND COPPER.
    1. PROBLEMS CAME FROM THE START
    1. ARRIVED APRIL 26-WERE DRIVEN BACK TO THE SHIP THE SAME DAY
    2. STAYED ON SHIP UNITL MAY 14TH
    3. CAME ASHORE-BUILT FORT AND PLANTED CROPS BEFORE WINTER SET IN
    4. WITHIN SIX MONTHS OF SETTLEMENT WERE ATTACKED BY NATIVES-GUNS WERE STILL IN PACKING CRATES
    1. LOCATION OF SETTLEMENT WAS POOR
    1. THE SITE WAS EASY TO DEFEND BUT SWAMPY AND INFESTED WITH FEVER BEARING MOSQUITOES.
    2. BY THE END OF THE FIRST SUMMER HALF THE COLONISTS HAD DIED
    3. WHEN THE FIRST SHIP FROM ENGLAND ARRIVED THE NEXT SPRING ONLY 38 COLONISTS SURVIVED TO GREET THEM.
    1. THE WINTER OF STARVATION 1609-1610
    1. SETTLERS OBTAINED CORN FROM THE INDIANS AND SOME SUPPLIES FROM ENGLAND
    2. THEY HAD GUNS AND PLENTY OF FISH AND GAME TO SURVIVE ON
    3. YET THE PEOPLE WERE STARVING
    4. VIRGINA WITNESSES ITS ONLY KNOWN CASE OF CANNIBALISM
    1. ONE MAN CHOPS UP HIS WIFE AND SALTS HER DOWN
    2. OTHERS DIG UP GRAVES TO EAT CORPSES
    3. BY SPRING 1610-ONLY 60 PEOPLE ARE LEFT
    1. PROBLEMS WITH JAMESTOWN
    1. THE COLONY SUFFERED FROM POOR LEADERSHIP, THE PEOPLE THAT WERE IN CHARGE OF JAMESTOWN KNEW ALMOST NOTHING ABOUT THE DIFFICULTIES THE SETTLERS FACED, AND THEY DID NOT GO THERE.
    2. THE SETTLERS WERE POORLY PREPARED THE MEN CAME TO SEARCH FOR GOLD, NOT TO FARM AND CREATE A SETTLEMENT
    3. THE MEN WERE UNACCUSTOMED TO HARD LABOR OF ANY KIND, THEY DID NOT REALIZE THAT IT WAS NECESSARY TO WORK HARD IF THEY WISHED TO STAY ALIVE.
    1. THE PERSISTENT VISION
    1. JAMESTOWN BEGAN TO SURVIVE WITH THE HELP OF MILITARY ORGANIZATION AND MARTIAL LAW
    1. MEN HAD NO REASON TO MAKE VIRGINA FLOURISH UNDER THESE CONDITIONS
    2. PEOPLE NEEDED TO OWN THEIR OWN LAND
    1. THIS STARTED LAND SPECUTLATION
    1. SERVANTS WERE SENT TO WORK A 100 ACRES (MIN 7 YEARS)
    2. AFTER SEVEN YEARS-TENANT EARNS 50 ACRES-REST BELONGS TO THE INVESTOR
    3. THIS BEGAN THE LAND HOLDINGS OF LARGE SLAVE FARMS
    1. CROPS GROWN ON THESE FARMS
    1. TOBACCO-MAIN CROP IN VIRGINA FOR 40 YEARS
    2. ORCHARDS
    3. RICE
    4. COTTON
    1. MORTALITY OF THE PEOPLES
    1. 1660-AVERAGE AGE OF DEATH 48
    2. 1 IN 3 CHILDREN SURVIVE
    3. 1 IN 7 WOMEN DIE DURING LABOR
    4. MOST PEOPLE DIE DURING SUMMERS
    1. LOW TIDEWATERS DON’T WASH OUT WASTE
    2. CAUSES DYSENTERY

V. SETTLING NEW ENGLAND

    1. PLYMOUTH (1620)
    1. SETTLED BY THE PILGRIMS
    2. MOST EXTREME AND UNCOMPROMISING SECTION OF THE PURITIANS
    3. BROKE OFF ALL TIES WITH ENGLISH CHURCH
    4. SOUGHT RELIEF FOR THEIR CHILDREN-WERE BECOMING SOLDIERS, SAILORS AND WORSE.
    1. NOV-1620 THE MAYFLOWER ARRIVES WITH 101 PILGRIMS
    1. BEGAN FRIENDLY RELATIONS WITH THE WAMPANOG INDIANS (SQUANTO)-SPOKE ENGLISH-TAUGHT THEM TO GROW CORN
    2. SPRING 1621- HALF THE PILGRIMS WERE DEAD
    3. COLONY WAS ABLE TO GROW A SIZABLE CROP
    4. SHARED THEIR BOUNTY WITH THE WAMPANOAGS (FALL 1621)
    5. PLYMOUTH REMAINED INDEPENDENT UNTIL 1691-BECAME PART OF MASSACHUSETTS

VI. MASSACHUSETTS BAY (1630)

    1. SETTLED BY THE PURITIANS
    2. LEFT ENGLAND TO SEEK RELIGIOUS AND ENCONOMIC FREEDOMS
    3. ONE HAD TO BE A PURITIAN TO LIVE WITHIN THE COLONY
    4. 10 YEAR PERIOD-40-50 THOUSAND PEOPLE CAME FROM ENGLAND
    5. ONE WAS FORCED TO ATTEND CHRUCH AT ALL TIMES.

VII. DISPUTE WITHIN THE CHURCH

    1. ANNE HUTCHINSON-MOTHER OF THIRTEEN CHILDREN, AND WIFE OF A PROMINENT MERCHANT
    2. BEGAN CALLING MEETINGS AT HER HOUSE FOLLOWING CHURCH SERVICES TO DISCUSS THE SERMONS
    3. SHE THAT ONLY TWO OF THREE PURITIAN MINISTERS ACTUALLY PREACHED THE APPROPRIATE "COVENANT OF GRACE" THE REST SHE CLAIMED WERE "DELUDED AND INCOMPETENT"
    4. HERESY WAS HER CRIME-SHE HAD ALSO OFFENDED THE AUTHORITIES
    5. BROUGHT INTO COURT-CONVICTED HERSELF BY CLAIMING SHE WAS RECEIVING THE DIVINE INSPIRATION
    6. 1638-BANISHED AS "A WOMAN NOT FIT FOR OUR SOCIETY"
    7. WAS KILLED ALONG WITH FIVE OF HER CHILDREN DURING AN INDIAN RAID.

VIII. BACON’S REBELLION (1675-1676)

    1. LAND HUNGRY ENGLISH BEGAN GOBBLING UP TERRITORY FROM THE INDIANS
    2. BAND OF DOEG INDIANS TRIED TO STEAL SOME HOGS FROM A SETTLER WHO OWED THEM FOR THEIR SEVICES
    3. DOEGS WERE SHOT IN THE PROCESS
    4. TENSIONS BEGAN TO BUILD BETWEEN THE TWO
    5. WINTER 1776-DOEGS MADE WAR RAID ON A SMALL SETTLEMENT-36 COLONISTS WERE KILLED
    6. NATHANIEL BACON-WAS BENT ON THE TOTAL DESTRUCTION OFALL INDIAN TRIBES-FORMED HIS OWN "TASK FORCE"
    7. WAS REJECTED BY THE GOVERNOR WHEN ASKED FOR A COMMISION FOR HIS MISSION
    8. BACON PROCEEDED WITHOUT COMMISSION AND AS AN OUTLAW
    9. BECAUSE OF BACON THE OCCANEECHEES AND THE SUSQUEHANNOCKS WERE ALMOST TOTALLY REMOVED
    10. 1677- BACON DIES FORM SWAMP FEVER OR DYSENTERY-HIS FRONTIER FORCE QUICKLY DIES OUT

IX. THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR (SEVEN YEARS WAR)

    1. ENGLISH FUR TRADERS BEGAN PUSHING INTO THE OHIO VALLEY (FRENCH TERRITORY)
    2. MAJOR G. WASHINGTON (age 22) LEADS SMALL FORCE ALONG WITH SOME INDIAN ALLIES INTO A SMALL SKIRMISH WITH FRENCH ATTACHMENT
    1. WHO ACTUALLY FIRED FIRST IS UNCLEAR, YET REPORTS CLAIM THAT WASHINGTON ORDERED THE FIRST SHOTS
    2. THESE SHOT CAUSED THE START OF THE WAR
    1. FRENCH SOUGHT THE HELP OF THE IROQUIS, SHAWNEES, & DELAWARES
    1. ONLY THEIR ALLIANCE WOULD HELP THEM TO SURVIVE
    2. ENGLISH COUNTERED BY SUPPLYING OTHER TRIBES WITH GUNS AND FOOD
    1. FORT DUQUESNE (1755)- ENGLISH FORT TAKEN BY THE FRENCH
    1. 2,200 SOLIDIERS LEFT FORT UNDER GENERAL BRADDOCK
    2. BRITISH ARE AMBUSHED ON THE TRAIL BY IROQUIS- BRADDOCK IS KILLED
    3. SECOND IN COMMAND ORDERS A RETREAT TO PHILIDELPHIA, LEAVING THE FORT ALONG WITH ALL ITS SUPPLIES AND ARTILLERY FOR THE TAKING.
    4. DURING THIS BATTLE WASHINGTON HAD 3 HORSES SHOT FROM UNDER HIM- JACKET HAD 2 BULLET HOLES IN IT.
    5. THE AMERICAN COLONIST BEGIN TO LEND THEIR HELP TO THE ENGLISH CAUSE-THIS TURNED THE TIDE OF THE WAR
    1. 1763- WAR ENDED WITH THE TREATY OF PARIS
    1. FRANCE LOST TERRITORY IN THE MID-WEST AND CANADA
    2. AMERICANS BEGAN DEVELOPING A DEEP RESENTMENT TOWARDS THE ENGLISH GOV’T

 

THAT IS THE END OF THIS UNIT!!!!

AREN’T YOU GLAD??

WELL START THE NEXT ONE IN A COUPLE DAYS

YOUR WELCOME!!

“The war that raged in North America through the late 1750’s and early 1760’s was but one part of

the larger struggle between England and France for dominance in world trade and naval power. The British

victory in that struggle, known in Europe as the Seven

Years War, ended the long struggle among those two

principal powers in northeastern North America, and

it confirmed England’s commercial supremacy and

cemented its control of the settled regions of North

America.

The French and the English had coexisted

relatively peacefully in North America for nearly

a century. But by the 1 750’s, as both English

and French settlements expanded, religious and

commercial tensions began to produce new frictions

and new conflicts. The French had explored and

claimed a vast region of the continental interior, ranging from Louisiana in the South to the Great Lakes

in the North. To secure their hold on these enormous claims, they founded a whole string of communities,

missions, trading posts, and fortresses. The region was enclosed by the four major cities: Montreal, Detroit,

New Orleans, and Quebec, the center of the French empire in North America.

The English, meanwhile, were preparing for the great population leap across the Appalachians

into Ohio and beyond. In 1749, a group of Virginian businessmen secured a grant of 500,000 acres of

Ohio valley land for settlement purposes. They were not impressed by Joseph Celeron, who in the same

year had claimed that region for France. This prompted the French, in an effort to keep the English from

expansion into French lands, to construct new fortresses in the Ohio Valley. This, in turn, caused the

English, interpreting the French activity as a threat to their western settlements, to begin making military

preparations and building fortresses of their own.

For the next five years, tensions between the English and the French increased, until in the summer

of 1754, the governor of Virginia sent a militia force (under command of an inexperienced George

Washington) into the Ohio Valley to challenge French expansion. Washington built a crude stockade (Fort

Necessity) and staged an unsuccessful attack on a French detachment. The French countered with an assault

on Fort Necessity, trapping Washington and his

soldiers inside. After a third of them died in the

fighting, Washington surrendered. This clash

marked the beginning of the French and Indian

War.”’

 

General Braddockʼs Defeat

“In 1755, Great Britain sent an army of 80 soldiers to Virginia. They

were led by General Edward Braddock. That spring the British troops

and about 600 colonists moved slowly toward Fort Duquesne. George

Washington went along as the general’s

aide.

As part of their uniforms, the British

soldiers wore bright red coats. Washington

tried to warn General Braddock that Indians

would find it easy to pick off such colorful

targets. But the general would not listen.

Indians might be a problem for ‘your raw

American militia,’ said Braddock. ‘But

upon the King’s regular and disciplined

troops, Sir, it is impossible they should

make any impression.’

Braddock could not have been more wrong. On July 9, the main part of

his army came within 1 0 miles of Fort Duquesne. The British could almost

smell victory. Then a thick hail of bullets rained down from nowhere. French

and Indian fighters hidden behind the trees had found their bright red targets.

Washington late wrote that the British had panicked. With men dying

all around them, they ran away ‘as sheep pursued

by dogs.’ Washington himself had ‘four bullets

through my coat and two horses shot under me.’

Yet he escaped unhurt. Braddock was not as lucky.

He was wounded, and four days later he died. His

last words were said to be ‘We shall know better

how to do it next time.’ ”

Edit Text

Write the questions and answer with complete sentences. You may use the internet to search for images of British Redcoat uniforms to help you to better understand the concepts.

1. What do you notice about the British

uniforms that Washington was alluding to?

2. Do you agree with his assessment?

3. What did General Braddock mean when

he said “We shall know better how to do it

next time.”?

4. Did the English learn anything from this

battle? Did they “do it” better next time?

 

EssayAssingnment

Research the “Indian Warfare” strategies used by the Native Americans and the French. Write a short report detailing the methods used and why they proved to be so successful.

 

Your Task: We talked about some of the problems with the Colony of Roanoke. based on what you learned in your notes, along with resources from the internet, to come up with at least 4 theories based on evidence about what could have happened to the colonist of Roanoke, this is a 20 point assingnments, each theory is worth 5 pts, I will accept one additional theory for extra credit.
 

In groups of no more than three you will do the following assingnment...You will be presenting this to the class so don't embarrass yourself and be ill prepared!

CLICK HERE TO GET YOUR NEXT ASSINGMENT!! IT WILL BE FUN I PROMISE!

 

In groups of three or less. Discuss the following and design a government or comact that all members of the group MUST AGREE UPON, if all members do not agree you must debate until an agreement is reached. Write a paper describing your government making sure to answers all of the following questions, remember that you will be questioned about the creation process that you went about to arive at your agreement. These are not the only questions you must answer these are a minimum, feel free to add anything else you would like to include about your agreement.
 
-Should there be a single leader or a group of leaders?
-How should the leader or leaders be selected?
-Who should make the laws?
-How should the lawmaker or lawmakers be selected?
-Should a police force be established to enforce the laws? If so, how should the police force be selected?
-Should a judge or judges be selected to preside over trials? If so, how should the judge or judges be selected?
-What general rule should determine how work is to be accomplished?
-What rights should everyone have?
 
The Mayflower Compact

If they looked behind them, there was the mighty ocean which they had passed…to separate them from all the civil parts of the world.
    -- William Bradford

The 102 passengers on the Mayflower were divided into two groups. Only 41 of them were Pilgrims--religious dissenters called Separatists, who had fled England for Holland. Now they sought a new life in America where they could practice their religion in the manner they chose. The rest of the passengers, called "strangers" by the Pilgrims, included merchants, craftsmen, skilled workers and indentured servants, and several young orphans. All were common people. About one-third of them were children.

The Pilgrims had organized the voyage. William Brewster and the other Pilgrim leaders had secured the right to settle on land claimed by the Virginia Company near the mouth of the Hudson River. To raise money for the voyage the Pilgrims signed a contract with a group of London stockholders. In return the stockholders would share in the profits of the planned colony. The Pilgrims had rounded up the "strangers" to increase the chances of success for their enterprise.

The 3,000-mile voyage across the Atlantic lasted more than two months. When they finally sighted land on November 9, 1620, the captain of the Mayflower knew right away that they were at Cape Cod, far north of their destination. The captain headed the Mayflower southward, but dangerous sand bars and heavy seas forced them to turn back. The Mayflower finally dropped anchor in a harbor at the tip of Cape Cod. Rather than chancing more days at sea, the Pilgrims decided to land.

Almost immediately, an argument broke out. According to William Bradford (who later wrote an account of the Pilgrims' experiences) several "strangers" made "discontented and mutinous speeches." They apparently argued that, since the Cape Cod area was outside the jurisdiction of the Virginia Company, its rules and regulations no longer applied. The troublemakers threatened to do as they pleased "for none had power to command them," wrote William Bradford. Three thousand miles from home, a real crisis faced the colonists even before they stepped ashore.

The Mayflower Compact
Imagine the situation: over 100 people, cut off from any government, with a rebellion brewing. Only staunch determination would help the Pilgrims land and establish their colony. If they didn't work as a group, they could all die in the wilderness.

The Pilgrim leaders realized that they needed a temporary government authority. Back home, such authority came from the king. Isolated as they were in America, it could only come from the people themselves. Aboard the Mayflower, by necessity, the Pilgrims and "Strangers" made a written agreement or compact among themselves.

The Mayflower Compact was probably composed by William Brewster, who had a university education, and was signed by nearly all the adult male colonists, including two of the indentured servants. The format of the Mayflower Compact is very similar to the written agreements used by the Pilgrims to establish their Separatist churches in England and Holland. Under these agreements the male adult members of each church decided how to worship God. They also elected their own ministers and other church officers. This pattern of church self-government served as a model for political self-government in the Mayflower Compact.

The colonists had no intention of declaring their independence from England when they signed the Mayflower Compact. In the opening line of the Compact, both Pilgrims and "Strangers" refer to themselves as "loyal subjects" of King James. The rest of the Mayflower Compact is very short. It simply bound the signers into a "Civil Body Politic" for the purpose of passing "just and equal Laws . . . for the general good of the Colony." But those few words expressed the idea of self-government for the first time in the New World.

Self-Government Takes Root
Immediately after agreeing to the Mayflower Compact, the signers elected John Carver (one of the Pilgrim leaders) as governor of their colony. They called it Plymouth Plantation. When Governor Carver died in less than a year, William Bradford, age 31, replaced him. Each year thereafter the "Civil Body Politic," consisting of all adult males except indentured servants, assembled to elect the governor and a small number of assistants. Bradford was re-elected 30 times between 1621 and 1656.

In the early years Governor Bradford pretty much decided how the colony should be run. Few objected to his one-man rule. As the colony's population grew due to immigration, several new towns came into existence. The roving and increasingly scattered population found it difficult to attend the General Court, as the governing meetings at Plymouth came to be called. By 1639, deputies were sent to represent each town at the other General Court sessions. Not only self-rule, but representative government had taken root on American soil.

The English Magna Carta, written more than 400 years before the Mayflower Compact, established the principle of the rule of law. In England this still mostly meant the king's law. The Mayflower Compact continued the idea of law made by the people. This idea lies at the heart of democracy.

From its crude beginning in Plymouth, self-government evolved into the town meetings of New England and larger local governments in colonial America. By the time of the Constitutional Convention, the Mayflower Compact had been nearly forgotten, but the powerful idea of self-government had not. Born out of necessity on the Mayflower, the Compact made a significant contribution to the creation of a new democratic nation.
 
On your own Write and Answer the following Questions in Complete Sentences, ...Give me good answers not garbage.
 
 
For Discussion and Writing
1. What two groups comprised the passengers on the Mayflower? How were they different from each other? How similar?
2. What events forced the passengers on the Mayflower to write and sign the Mayflower Compact?
3. What facts in the article support the argument that the Pilgrims were democratic? What facts support the view that they were not democratic?
4. What is the most important idea contained in the Mayflower Compact? What are some other ideas it contains?


Research Nathaniel Bacon on the internet...use any resource that you can to write a biography of his life, this biography should include information about his birth, and major events in his life, also include information about the rebellions, this assignment should be about one page in length.

Camp Verde High School